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Five patients developed hypertension after undergoing orthopaedic surgery. Three of four patients in whom serum renin was assayed had significant elevation, suggesting a possible renal-mediated etiology. Two patients required the addition of an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor to control hypertension while continuing the prolonged orthopaedic procedures. The need for careful blood-pressure monitoring of children undergoing orthopaedic surgery is emphasized in this article.