Kinematic Evaluation of 4 Pediatric Collars and Distribution of Cervical Movement Between Primary and Coupled Angles

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid



Primary and coupled angle restrictions, when neck collars are used, have been investigated mainly in adults and not yet in children.


To evaluate the efficiency of 4 pediatric collars in reducing cervical range of motion (ROM) in primary and coupled planes.


Thirty asymptomatic children (16 boys and 14 girls) aged 6 to 12 years participated in the study. A motion analysis system was used to evaluate the ROM of the cervical spine during flexion/extension, left and right lateral bending, and left and right axial rotation. Primary and coupled ROM were evaluated in unbraced and braced conditions. Four cervical collars were tested: Philadelphia, Miami Jr, Necloc, and the conventional Hard Collar. Thirteen subjects were tested 2 times to evaluate the repeatability of the parameters. The ROM in each plane was normalized to the sum of the ROM in the 3 planes, for each movement, to estimate the percentage of the movement in each plane (normalized ROM), in braced and unbraced conditions. The analysis of variance and post hoc Benferroni tests were applied on raw and normalized ROM.


ROM collected in collars showed a significant difference compared with the unbraced condition. ROM obtained in Necloc and Miami Jr showed a significant difference compared with Philadelphia and conventional Hard Collar. The primary plane is activated at 80% during flexion-extension and left-right axial rotation; however, 55% of the total movement was completed in the frontal plane during left-right lateral bending in unbraced condition. Statistical differences in the normalized ROM were found between the braced and unbraced conditions and among collars.


Necloc and Miami Jr presented the highest limitation of movement in the primary and secondary planes. The distribution strategy of a movement, between primary and coupled angles, is different between the braced and unbraced conditions.

Related Topics

    loading  Loading Related Articles