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Preoperative spinal parameters are used to guide the fusion levels in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) spinal surgery. However, the impact of the factors modifiable by the surgeon in varying levels of preoperative patient-specific variables is not fully explored. The goal of this study was to identify the association between axial rotation correction of the lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) and spontaneous correction of the uninstrumented lumbar spine as a function of preoperative 3 dimensional (3D) curve characteristics in Lenke 1 AIS.Twenty-three Lenke1 AIS with a minimum 2-year follow-up were included. All patients had biplanar spinal x-rays and 3D reconstructions at preoperative, first erect, and 2-year follow-up visits. Five patient factors were measured preoperatively: kyphosis and lumbar modifiers, and thoracic to lumbar curve rotation, translation, and frontal deformity angle ratios. One surgical factor, percentage of LIV rotation correction, was determined from the preoperative and first erect 3D models. A factorial design analysis was implemented to determine the impact of surgical and patient factors, both separately and in combination, on 2-year radiographic outcomes of spontaneous correction of the uninstrumented spine.Spontaneous lumbar Cobb and lumbar apical rotation correction were predicted significantly by patient and surgical factors, P<0.05. Lumbar modifier, percentage correction of LIV rotation, the interaction between LIV rotation correction and lumbar modifier, and the interaction between LIV rotation correction and thoracic to lumbar apical vertebrae translation ratio correlated significantly to 2-year outcomes of spontaneous lumbar Cobb correction, P<0.05. Lumbar modifier and the interaction between the Cobb ratio and the percentage of the LIV rotation correction correlated significantly to 2-year outcomes of lumbar apical rotation correction, P<0.05.The relationship between LIV rotation correction and spontaneous lumbar curve correction after selective thoracic fusion varied based on the patient’s 3D preoperative curve characteristics. Patients with lumbar modifier C and apical vertebrae translation ratios >1.5 showed improved lumbar Cobb correction in 2-years when 50% or more LIV rotation correction was achieved surgically.