The Effects of Work-Related Demands Associated With Social and Economic Change on Psychological Well-Being: A Study of Employed and Self-Employed Individuals

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Abstract

This study examined perceived work-related demands emanating from social and economic change (i.e., increasing labor market uncertainties, nonstandard work hours, and job autonomy), with a special focus on work status (self-employed vs. employed). We studied a sample of young and middle-aged adults from Germany (N = 1,017). Increasing job autonomy buffered the negative effect of increasing nonstandard work hours on job satisfaction. Mediation analyses suggest that the self-employed, compared to wage-earners, enjoy higher levels of job satisfaction because they are confronted with fewer negative manifestations of change. We further found different job satisfaction effects of increasing nonstandard work hours and job autonomy in employed versus self-employed individuals, which merits further clarification in future research.

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