Hereditary gingival fibromatosis (HGF) is an oral condition characterized by the enlargement of the gingiva of both the maxilla and mandible. To study the cell proliferation index of fibroblasts from HGF and normal gingiva (NG), cell cultures from 4 members of the same family with HGF and from 4 healthy patients were established. Our results obtained from 6 different cell proliferation assays clearly showed that the cell proliferation rate was significantly higher in fibroblasts from HGF than from normal gingiva. HGF and control fibroblasts in subconfluent culture densities were typically spindle, but in saturation density HGF cells were shorter than control cells. These data suggest that the higher proliferative index of HGF fibroblasts possibly has a role in the pathogenesis of gingival outgrowth in HGF patients.