Effects of platelet-derived growth factor isoforms on plasminogen activation by periodontal ligament and gingival fibroblasts

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Abstract

Background and Objective

Platelet-derived growth factor isoforms and components of the plasminogen activator system are expressed at higher levels during periodontal regeneration. Recombinant platelet-derived growth factor-BB is approved for the treatment of periodontal defects. In the present study we investigated the effect of platelet-derived growth factor isoforms on the plasminogen activator system in periodontal fibroblasts.

Material and Methods

Human periodontal ligament fibroblasts and gingival fibroblasts were exposed to platelet-derived growth factor isoforms. Changes in urokinase-type plasminogen activator, tissue-type plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 transcript levels by platelet-derived growth factor-BB were monitored with a quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 protein levels were assessed by immunoassays. The effects of platelet-derived growth factor-BB on mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositol-3 kinase/Akt signaling were investigated by western blot and inhibitor studies. Casein zymography and kinetic assays revealed the size and activity, respectively, of the plasminogen activators.

Results

We found that incubation of periodontal ligament fibroblasts and gingival fibroblasts with platelet-derived growth factor-BB resulted in enhanced levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 transcripts, but not of tissue-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2. Platelet-derived growth factor-BB also increased urokinase-type plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 release into the culture medium. Phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase and Akt was observed in fibroblasts of both origin. Inhibition of phosphoinositol-3 kinase signaling abrogated the platelet-derived growth factor-BB effect on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 production. Casein zymography revealed enzymatic activity of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator in cell-conditioned media and lysates of periodontal ligament fibroblasts and gingival fibroblasts. Exposure of gingival fibroblasts, but not of periodontal ligament fibroblasts, to platelet-derived growth factor isoforms moderately increased total plasminogen activation in the medium.

Conclusion

These findings suggest that periodontal ligament fibroblasts attempt to maintain an equilibrium of the plasminogen activator system in the presence of platelet-derived growth factor isoforms.

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