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Systemic levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 have been reported to be elevated in patients with periodontitis compared with periodontally healthy individuals. Most studies included patients with chronic periodontitis and comprised predominantly Caucasians. The aim of this study was to determine the relative levels of C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in plasma of patients with aggressive periodontitis in China and to examine the relationships between these two inflammatory mediators and clinical parameters, peripheral blood cells and protein variables.Plasma samples were collected from 84 patients with aggressive periodontitis and from 65 control subjects. Periodontal examination consisted of taking probing depth and attachment loss measurements. The levels of plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.The levels of plasma C-reactive protein in patients with aggressive periodontitis were significantly higher than those in control subjects (1.87 vs. 0.52 mg/L). The level of plasma interleukin-6 in patients with aggressive periodontitis was 1.20 pg/mL, higher than that in control subjects (0.08 pg/mL). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that log C-reactive protein was significantly related to severe sites percentage and albumin following correction for age, gender, body mass index and smoking (p = 0.000, p = 0.008, respectively). Log interleukin-6 was found to be significantly correlated with periodontal diagnosis, leukocyte count and level of fasting blood glucose after adjusting for the confounders (p = 0.000, p = 0.009 and p = 0.013, respectively).Patients with aggressive periodontitis have significantly elevated levels of plasma C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. These elevated inflammatory factors might potentially increase the risk for cardiovascular events and glucose dysregulation in relatively young individuals.