Relationship between the gingival sulcus depth and interleukin-1 isoform concentrations within the adjacent gingival tissue

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Abstract

Background and Objective:

While there is substantial information concerning the concentrations of interleukin-1 isoforms within gingival crevicular fluid, there is little information concerning their concentrations within either normal or diseased gingival tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the concentrations of gingival interleukin-1 isoforms and the adjacent sulcular depth.

Material and Methods:

Interdental gingival papillae were excised and grouped based on adjacent pocket depth and the presence of bleeding on probing. Gingiva adjacent to a sulcus of ≤ 3 mm without bleeding on probing were classified as ‘normal’; gingiva adjacent to a 3-mm sulcus with bleeding on probing were classified as ‘diseased-slight’; gingiva adjacent to a 4–6-mm sulcus featuring bleeding on probing were classified as ‘diseased-moderate’; and gingiva adjacent to a sulcus of > 6 mm featuring bleeding on probing were classified as ‘diseased-severe’. Tissues were solublized and the concentrations of interleukin-1β, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-6 were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were compared by factorial analysis of variance, the post-hoc Tukey test and the Pearson's correlation test.

Results:

Gingival concentrations of interleukin-6, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist, interleukin-1α- and interleukin-1β were significantly greater at diseased-severe sites than at normal, diseased-slight, or diseased-moderate sites (p < 0.05); the gingival concentrations of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and interleukin-1α were significantly greater at diseased-severe than at diseased-moderate sites (p < 0.05). Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist concentrations were significantly correlated with both interleukin-1α and interleukin-1β concentrations. The ratios of concentrations of the interleukin-1 isoforms were different at the various stages of inflammation.

Conclusion:

Our data indicated a progressive increase in gingival concentrations of interleukin-1 isoforms with increased adjacent sulcular depth. However, within ‘diseased’ tissues, the proportional concentrations of interleukin-1α and -β to interleukin-1 receptor antagonist were lowest within diseased-severe tissues.

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