Comparison of periodontal destruction patterns among patients with and without the habit of smokeless tobacco use – a retrospective study

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Abstract

Anand PS, Kamath KP, Bansal A, Dwivedi S, Anil S. Comparison of periodontal destruction patterns among patients with and without the habit of smokeless tobacco use – a retrospective study. 2013; 48: 623–631. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Background and Objective:

The effects of tobacco smoking on the prevalence and severity of periodontal disease have been well documented. However, very few studies have assessed the effects of oral smokeless tobacco (ST) on the periodontium. Considering the widespread use of ST products globally, the effects of such products on the periodontal tissues may be important. The present study was performed to compare retrospectively the patterns of periodontal destruction among oral ST users and never-users with periodontitis.

Material and Methods:

Data from 149 patients with periodontitis (60 ST users and 89 never-users) were compared for mean scores of probing depth, recession (REC) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) and the mean percentage of sites with different ranges of probing depth, REC and CAL.

Results:

For full-mouth scores, mean REC and CAL were significantly higher in ST users than in never-users (p < 0.001 and p = 0.008, respectively). For different regions of the dentition, mean scores of REC were significantly higher among ST users than among never-users (p < 0.001 for all regions), and mean scores of CAL were significantly higher for ST users in mandibular (p < 0.001), buccal (p = 0.008), lingual (p = 0.022), anterior (p = 0.012) and molar (p = 0.009) sites. Generally, there were higher percentages of sites with shallow pockets (0–3 mm), REC of ≥ 1 mm and CAL of ≥ 3 mm in ST users than in never-users. However, only differences for REC categories were significant for all regions (p < 0.001). ST users had a significantly higher proportion of sites with CAL of ≥8 mm for full-mouth sites (p = 0.003), mandibular teeth (p < 0.001), buccal sites (p = 0.002), anterior teeth (p = 0.040) and molars (p = 0.007).

Conclusion:

ST users tend to have more severe REC and CAL and a greater proportion of sites with higher values of REC and CAL compared with never-users. The greatest increase in severity of CAL was found to be localized to sites on mandibular teeth, buccal surfaces, anteriors and molars, which may be a result of the retention of the ST product in the oral cavity.

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