Irshad M, Scheres N, Anssari Moin D, Crielaard W, Loos BG, Wismeijer D, Laine ML. Cytokine and matrix metalloproteinase expression in fibroblasts from peri-implantitis lesions in response to viable Porphyromonas gingivalis. J Periodont Res 2013; 48: 647–656. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons LtdBackground and Objective:
To assess inflammatory reactions of fibroblasts in the pathophysiology of peri-implantitis, we compared the pro-inflammatory and matrix-degrading responses of gingival and granulation tissue fibroblasts from periodontally healthy controls, peri-implantitis, and periodontitis lesions to an in vitro challenge with Porphyromonas gingivalis.Methods:
Fibroblasts from periodontally healthy, peri-implantitis and periodontitis donors were challenged with viable P. gingivalis. The inflammatory reactions of fibroblasts were analyzed before and after 6 h P. gingivalis challenge, and 2.5 and 18 h after removal of the challenge. Gene expression and induction of pro-inflammatory mediators, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results:
Non-challenged fibroblasts from peri-implantitis and periodontitis lesions expressed higher levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1 than fibroblasts from periodontally healthy individuals. The P. gingivalis challenge induced expression of IL-1β, IL-8, IL-6, MCP-1, and MMP-1 in periodontitis and peri-implantitis fibroblasts, but not in fibroblasts from periodontally healthy individuals. MMP-8 expression was higher in non-challenged peri-implantitis fibroblasts than in fibroblasts from periodontally healthy individuals. However, the P. gingivalis challenge downregulated MMP-8 gene expression in peri-implantitis fibroblasts. After removal of the P. gingivalis challenge, peri-implantitis fibroblasts sustained higher induction of IL-1β, MCP-1, and MMP-1 compared to periodontitis fibroblasts.Conclusions:
Fibroblasts from peri-implantitis and periodontitis lesions gave a more pronounced inflammatory response to the P. gingivalis challenge than fibroblasts from healthy donors. They may therefore be involved in the development of inflammation in peri-implantitis and periodontitis. Moreover, the sustained upregulation of inflammatory mediators and MMP-1 in peri-implantitis fibroblasts may play a role in the pathogenesis of peri-implantitis.