Assessment of periostin levels in serum and gingival crevicular fluid of patients with periodontal disease

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Abstract

Background and Objective:

Periostin, a secreted adhesion molecule essential for periodontal tissue integrity, is highly expressed in the periodontal ligament and plays a critical role in tooth and bone development. The purpose of this study was to investigate periostin levels in the gingival crevicular fluid and serum of patients with periodontal disease and compare them with those of healthy individuals.

Material and Methods:

Eighty individuals (41 males and 39 females; age range: 25–48 years) were enrolled in the study. Individuals were divided into three groups following clinical and radiographic examinations: the periodontal–healthy group (n = 20), gingivitis group (n = 30) and chronic periodontitis group (n = 30). Gingival crevicular fluid and serum samples were collected and periostin levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results:

The total amount and concentration of periostin decreased in gingival crevicular fluid with the progression and severity of the disease from healthy controls to gingivitis and to chronic periodontitis groups and differed significantly (p < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference in serum periostin concentration within all groups (p > 0.05). Periostin in gingival crevicular fluid negatively correlated with the gingival index in the periodontal disease groups, whereas it is inversely correlated with the clinical attachment level only in the periodontitis group (p < 0.05). When all the clinical groups were examined together, the periostin concentration negatively correlated with clinical attachment level and gingival index; moreover, total periostin positively correlated with periostin concentration and clinical attachment level (p < 0.05).

Conclusions:

The periostin levels in gingival crevicular fluid decreased proportionally with the progression and severity of periodontal disease, and negatively correlated with the clinical parameters. Within the limits of the study, the periostin level in gingival crevicular fluid can be considered a reliable marker in the evaluation of periodontal disease susceptibility and activity.

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