Expression of anti-Porphyromonas gingivalispeptidylarginine deiminase immunoglobulin G and peptidylarginine deiminase-4 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis

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Shimada A, Kobayashi T, Ito S, Okada M, Murasawa A, Nakazono K, Yoshie H. Expression of anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis peptidylarginine deiminase immunoglobulin G and peptidylarginine deiminase-4 in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis. J Periodont Res 2016; 51: 103–111. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd

Background and Objective:

Autoimmunity against citrullinated proteins through peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) may be involved in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study evaluated the serum levels of antibodies to citrullinated proteins and to Porphyromonas gingivalis PAD (PPAD), and the endogenous expression of PAD-4, in individuals with and without RA, as well as before and after periodontal treatment.

Material and Methods:

The study participants consisted of 52 patients with RA (RA group) and 26 age-, gender- and smoking status-matched healthy controls (non-RA group). Of the 52 patients, 26 were randomly assigned to receive oral hygiene instruction and supragingival scaling (RA subgroup). After periodontal and rheumatologic assessments, the serum levels of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) immunoglobulin G (IgG), anti-PPAD IgG and PAD-4 were determined using ELISA.


The serum levels of anti-CCP IgG and anti-PPAD IgG were significantly higher in the RA group than in the non-RA group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.03). A significant, positive correlation was observed between the serum levels of anti-PPAD IgG and anti-CCP IgG (p = 0.04), but not between the serum levels of PAD-4 and anti-CCP IgG. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed a significant association between anti-PPAD IgG responses and RA after adjustment for age, gender and smoking (p = 0.004). Supragingival scaling significantly improved the periodontal condition and disease activity of RA (p < 0.05), but failed to decrease the serum levels of anti-CCP IgG, anti-PPAD IgG and PAD-4 after 2 mo of treatment.


These results might suggest an association between anti-PPAD IgG and anti-CCP IgG responses, implicating a role for PPAD in protein citrullination in patients with RA and periodontitis.

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