Six patients with chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathy (CADP) were treated with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Two with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome improved–improvement was sustained in one but relapsed and required repeat transplant in the other. Two of the three with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and one with an IgM paraprotein and antibodies to nerve improved–of the responders, one relapsed after 18 months and the other was in remission after 6 months. Four developed neutropenic septicemia and pneumonia. The role of PBSCT in CADP refractory to other treatment deserves further investigation but the serious adverse events and lack of sustained response in some patients emphasize the need for caution.