Radiopacity for Contemporary Luting Cements Using Digital Radiography under Various Exposure Conditions

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Purpose:This study examined the radiopacity of contemporary luting cements using direct digital radiography under a range of exposure conditions.Materials and Methods:Disc specimens (N = 80, n = 10 per group, φ5 mm × 1 mm) were prepared from 8 resin-based luting cements (BisCem Clearfil SA Luting, Duolink, Maxcem Elite Multilink Speed, Panavia F 2.0, RelyX Unicem Clicker, V-link). The specimens were radiographed using a charge-coupled device sensor along with an 11-step aluminum step wedge (1.5-mm incremental steps) and 1-mm-thick tooth cut using five tube voltage/exposure time setups (60 kVp, 0.10/0.08 seconds; 70 kVp, 0.10/0.08/0.06 seconds) at 4 mA and 30 cm. The radiopacity of the specimens was compared with that of the aluminum step wedge and human enamel and dentin using NIH ImageJ software (available at A linear regression model for the aluminum step wedge was constructed, and the data were analyzed by ANOVA and Duncan post hoc test.Results:Maxcem Elite (5.142 to 5.441) showed the highest radiopacity of all materials, followed in order by Multilink Speed (3.731 to 3.396) and V-link (2.763 to 3.103). The radiopacity of Panavia F 2.0 (2.025 to 2.429), BisCem (1.825 to 2.218), Clearfil SA Luting (1.692 to 2.145), Duolink (1.707 to 1.993), and RelyX Unicem Clicker (1.586 to 1.979) were between enamel (2.117 to 2.330) and dentin (1.302 to 1.685). The radiopacity of 70 kVp conditions was higher than that of the 60 kVp conditions.Conclusions:The radiopacities of the tested luting materials were greater than those of dentin or aluminum, satisfying the criteria of the International Organization for Standardization, and they differed significantly from each other in the exposure setups.

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