Biomarker Identification in Psychiatric Disorders: From Neuroscience to Clinical Practice

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Abstract

Patients with psychiatric disorders exhibit several neurobehavioral and neuropsychological alterations compared to healthy controls. However, signature endpoints of these behavioral manifestations have not yet been translated into clinical tests for diagnosis and follow-up measures. Recently, neuroproteomic approaches have been utilized to identify unique signature markers indicative of these disorders. Development of reliable biomarkers has the potential to revolutionize the diagnosis, classification, and monitoring of clinical responses in psychiatric diseases. However, the lack of biological gold standards, the evolving nosology of psychiatric disorders, and the complexity of the nervous system are among the major challenges that have hindered efforts to develop reliable biomarkers in the field of neuropsychiatry and drug abuse. While biomarkers currently have a limited role in the area of neuropsychiatry, several promising biomarkers have been proposed in conditions such as dementia, schizophrenia, depression, suicide, and addiction. One of the primary objectives of this review is to discuss the role of proteomics in the development of biomarkers specific to neuropsychiatry. We discuss and evaluate currently available biomarkers as well as those that are under research for clinical use in the future. (Journal of Psychiatric Practice 2015;21:37–48)

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