A Theoretical Analysis of Crossed Categorization Effects: A Meta-Analysis

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The authors meta-analytically compared evaluations of persons exhibiting crossed or convergent cues of in-group–out-group membership to assess the theoretically predicted moderating roles of personalized interaction, mood valence, and cognitive factors. Within an overall Additivity pattern across the four targets of the crossed categorization paradigm (viz. in-group–in-group, the crossed targets, and the double out-group), evidence for Category Dominance emerged. In moderator analyses based on judges' ratings of contextual levels of each moderator within each study, personalization and positivity of affect reduced differential bias toward targets. Evaluations of crossed targets became more similar to double out-group targets than double in-group targets as cognitive overload increased. Greater discrepancy in the importance of the category dimensions was associated with greater dominance of one category over another in evaluations of the crossed targets.

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