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In this paper, we develop a latent processing ability model to analyze the speed of processing ability data. Our approach can not only effectively evaluate the effects of covariates on the latent processing ability, but also estimate the latent trait of each child by calculating its posterior mean. In addition, we derive the correlations structure of latent traits among different age groups. Simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of our proposed model. The results indicated that the estimation of model parameters is satisfactory overall. The method is evaluated using real data from children aged 4–7 years in Changchun, China.