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The study investigates the magnitude and distribution of fatal road traffic injuries (RTIs) in the Chinese province of Jiangsu by road user.The 13 694 RTI deaths and years of potential life lost (YPLL) that occurred in 2012 were analysed; vulnerable and non-vulnerable road users were considered separately. Age-adjusted mortality and YPLL were compiled and the association between demographic characteristics and RTI mortality rate was analysed using negative binomial regression.The age-adjusted RTI mortality and YPLL in Jiangsu in 2012 were 18.14 (95% CI: 17.84-18.45) and 494.3 (95% CI: 492.7-496.0) per 100 000 population. Half of the deaths were among pedestrians and for vulnerable road users as a whole, male fatalities were over three times that of female (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 3.26, 95% CI: 1.89-3.77). Fatalities in the oldest age group (80+ years) were over 14 times that of the youngest one (0-9 years) (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 14.13, 95% CI: 9.49-21.01). Fatality rates in the central and northern regions surpassed that of the south.As in the rest of the country, RTIs are a considerable public health problem in Jiangsu where fatality and YPLL rates fall heavily on pedestrians, men, and older persons and are more pronounced in the less developed regions.