This article examines the four-year development of the North Carolina Community-Based Public Health Initiative consortium (NC CBPHI). The NC CBPHI consisted of four separate county coalitions and differed in both its agenda and membership from the many examples of coalitions described in the literature. This article presents and describes evaluation findings that identify six factors as important in coalition functioning and success in the CBPHI coalitions. These factors are: participation, communication, governance and rules for operation, staff/coalition member relationships, technical assistance and skills training, and conflict recognition and containment. Selected CBPHI coalition activities are also described and implications for public health practitioners are presented.