Factors Associated With Provider Reporting of Child and Adolescent Vaccination History to Immunization Information Systems: Results From the National Immunization Survey, 2006-2012

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Use of Immunization information systems (IISs) by providers can improve vaccination rates by identifying missed opportunities. However, provider reporting of children's vaccination histories to IISs remains suboptimal.


To assess factors associated with provider reporting to an IIS.


Analysis of 2006-2012 National Immunization Survey (NIS) and NIS-Teen data. NIS and NIS-Teen are ongoing random-digit-dial telephone surveys of households with children and adolescents, respectively, followed by a mail survey to providers to obtain the patient's vaccination history.

Setting and Participants:

A total of 115 285 children aged 19 to 35 months and 83 612 adolescents aged 13 to 17 years and their immunization providers in the United States.

Main Outcome Measures:

The percentage of children and adolescents with 1 or more providers reporting to or obtaining vaccination information from their local IISs. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine patient and provider factors associated with provider reporting to IISs and adjusted prevalence of children and adolescents with 1 or more providers reporting to IISs.


In 2012, 79.4% of children and 77.4% of adolescents had 1 or more providers report any of their vaccination data to an IIS, and 41.9% of children and 51.5% of adolescents had providers who obtained any of their vaccination histories from an IIS. During 2006-2012, children and adolescents were more likely to have any of their vaccination data reported to an IIS if they received care from all public versus all private providers (children: 84.4% vs 69.6%, P < .0001; adolescents: 84.6% vs 66.4%, P < .0001), had 1 or more providers who ordered vaccines from a state or local health department (children: 76.7% vs 59.5%, P < .0001; adolescents: 77.0% vs 55.6%, P < .0001), or had 1 or more providers obtain vaccination information from the IIS (children: 86.1% vs 71.2%, P < .0001; adolescents: 83.7% vs 64.6%, P < .0001).


Health department staff should target providers less likely to use IIS services, including private providers, and providers not ordering vaccines from health departments to ensure they use IIS services.

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