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Targeted identification and treatment of people with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are key components of the US tuberculosis elimination strategy. Because of recent policy changes, some LTBI treatment may shift from public health departments to the private sector.To (1) develop methodology to estimate initiation and completion of treatment with isoniazid for LTBI using claims data, and (2) estimate treatment completion rates for isoniazid regimens from commercial insurance claims.Medical and pharmacy claims data representing insurance-paid services rendered and prescriptions filled between January 2011 and March 2015 were analyzed.Four million commercially insured individuals 0 to 64 years of age.Six-month and 9-month treatment completion rates for isoniazid LTBI regimens.There was an annual isoniazid LTBI treatment initiation rate of 12.5/100 000 insured persons. Of 1074 unique courses of treatment with isoniazid for which treatment completion could be assessed, almost half (46.3%; confidence interval, 43.3-49.3) completed 6 or more months of therapy. Of those, approximately half (48.9%; confidence interval, 44.5-53.3) completed 9 months or more.Claims data can be used to identify and evaluate LTBI treatment with isoniazid occurring in the commercial sector. Completion rates were in the range of those found in public health settings. These findings suggest that the commercial sector may be a valuable adjunct to more traditional venues for tuberculosis prevention. In addition, these newly developed claims-based methods offer a means to gain important insights and open new avenues to monitor, evaluate, and coordinate tuberculosis prevention.