The V-Plasty: A Novel Microsurgical Technique for Anastomosis of Vessels with Marked Size Discrepancy

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Abstract

Background

The art of reconstructive microsurgery is still progressing after Carrel's original description of “vascular repair” in 1902. Reports of the successful repair of vessels smaller than 1 mm in diameter are currently commonplace. However, the technique of microvascular anastomosis to connect vessels with large diameter discrepancy, greater than 1 mm, has not yet been perfected. This article reports a novel option to anastomose two vessels of different sizes by adapting the diameters of the two stumps and creating a gentle slope that dramatically reduces turbulences in the blood stream.

Methods

The “V-plasty” consists in designing a v-shaped flap on the wall of the large vessel and a longitudinal incision on the small one. The V-flap is then introduced into the V-defect of the small vessel, creating a smooth transition of the diameters between the two vessels. Mathematical calculation of the dimensions of the V-flap was conducted with different ratios' discrepancies of the two vessels ranging from 1.5 to 4. Clinically, 14 microvascular V-plasty were performed in 8 patients.

Results

The theoretical simulation and our clinical experience of 14 cases allowed us to propose the different dimensions (length and width) of the V-plasty according to the ratio of vessels discrepancies.

Conclusion

The V-plasty microanastomosis is an alternative method to attach vessels with size discrepancy. It simply equalizes the donor and recipient vessels' diameters. Its main advantage is to maintain a linear axis between the two vessels whatever the discrepancy ratio is.

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