This report details a rare case of diffuse bilateral scrotal neurofibroma complicated by hindlimb paralysis in a rabbit. The animal was evaluated for unusual bilateral scrotal enlargement. After physical examination, ultrasound scan, radiography, computed tomography and laparoscopy, surgical exploration of the scrotum was undertaken. A homogeneous rubbery firm mass was revealed in contact with the subcutaneous tissue expanding to the entire scrotum without involving the testicles. The mass was excised and diagnosed as diffuse scrotal neurofibroma based on histological and immunohistochemical findings (S-100 antibody positive). Over the following month, progressive neurological signs (faecal incontinence, flaccid bladder and hindlimb paralysis) were observed. After excluding central nervous system infection withEncephalitozoon cuniculi, expansion of the neurofibroma to the vertebral canal causing compression of the spinal cord was suspected, although not histopathologically verified.