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South, MA, Layne, AS, Stuart, CA, Triplett, NT, Ramsey, MW, Howell, ME, Sands, WA, Mizuguchi, S, Hornsby, WG, Kavanaugh, AA, and Stone, MH. Effects of short-term free-weight and semiblock periodization resistance training on metabolic syndrome. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2682–2696, 2016—The effects of short-term resistance training on performance and health variables associated with prolonged sedentary lifestyle and metabolic syndrome (MS) were investigated. Resistance training may alter a number of health-related, physiological, and performance variables. As a result, resistance training can be used as a valuable tool in ameliorating the effects of a sedentary lifestyle including those associated with MS. Nineteen previously sedentary subjects (10 with MS and 9 with nonmetabolic syndrome [NMS]) underwent 8 weeks of supervised resistance training. Maximum strength was measured using an isometric midthigh pull and resulting force-time curve. Vertical jump height (JH) and power were measured using a force plate. The muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and type were examined using muscle biopsy and standard analysis techniques. Aerobic power was measured on a cycle ergometer using a ParvoMedics 2400 Metabolic system. Endurance was measured as time to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer. After training, maximum isometric strength, JH, jump power, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak increased by approximately 10% (or more) in both the metabolic and NMS groups (both male and female subjects). Over 8 weeks of training, body mass did not change statistically, but percent body fat decreased in subjects with the MS and in women, and lean body mass increased in all groups (p ≤ 0.05). Few alterations were noted in the fiber type. Men had larger CSAs compared those of with women, and there was a fiber-specific trend toward hypertrophy over time. In summary, 8 weeks of semiblock free-weight resistance training improved several performance variables and some cardiovascular factors associated with MS.