Chien, K-Y, Kan, N-W, Liao, Y-H, Lin, Y-L, Lin, C-L, and Chen, W-C. Neuromuscular activity and muscular oxygenation through different movement cadences during in-water and on-land knee extension exercise. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 750–757, 2017—The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of various knee extension exercise cadences on neuromuscular activation and hemodynamic properties of the quadriceps muscle in water and on land. Seventeen young women participated in this study, and the subjects were randomly allocated to perform loaded knee extension exercises in water and on land at 4 different cadences of 30, 50, 70, and 90 b·min−1. Heart rate (HR), blood flow (BF), total saturation index (TSI) of oxygen, electromyography (EMG) for the extent of muscular activity, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Response values of HR, BF, TSI, and RPE at each cadence were obtained by subtracting the resting values from the indicator values measured at the respective cadences. We observed that BF, EMG, and RPE in water at 90 b·min−1 were comparable with those on land. The HR and TSI changes were higher in water compared with on land (p = 0.004 and p = 0.013, respectively). In conclusion, we demonstrate that the neuromuscular activity when performing knee extension exercises at 90 b·min−1 in water was comparable with that on land. However, exercising in water at the same cadence evoked higher TSI responses and greater cardiovascular challenges. A knee extension exercise at 90 b·min−1 is the recommended operating speed of rehabilitation in water.