Shimokochi, Y, Kuwano, S, Yamaguchi, T, Abutani, H, and Shima, N. Effects of wearing a compression garment during night sleep on recovery from high-intensity eccentric-concentric quadriceps muscle fatigue. J Strength Cond Res 31(10): 2816–2824, 2017—This study aimed to investigate the effects of wearing a compression garment (CG) during night sleep on muscle fatigue recovery after high-intensity eccentric and concentric knee extensor exercises. Seventeen male college students participated in 2 experimental sessions under CG and non-CG (NCG) wearing conditions. Before night sleep under CG or NCG wearing conditions, the subjects performed a fatiguing protocol consisting of 10 sets of 10 repetitions of maximal isokinetic eccentric and concentric knee extensor contractions, with 30-second rest intervals between the sets. Immediately before and after and 24 hours after the fatiguing protocol, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force for knee extensor muscles was measured; surface electromyographic data from the vastus medialis and rectus femoris were also measured. A 2-way repeated-measure analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni pairwise comparisons were used to analyze the differences in each variable. Paired-sample t-tests were used to analyze the mean differences between the conditions at the same time points for each variable. The MVIC 24 hours after the fatiguing protocol was approximately 10% greater in the CG than in the NCG condition (p = 0.033). Changes in the electromyographic variables over time did not significantly differ between the conditions. Thus, it was concluded that wearing a CG during night sleep may promote localized muscle fatigue recovery but does not influence neurological factors after the fatiguing exercise.