Villar, R, Gillis, J, Santana, G, Pinheiro, DS, and Almeida, ALRA. Association between anaerobic metabolic demands during simulated Brazilian jiu-jitsu combat and specific jiu-jitsu anaerobic performance test. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 432–440, 2018—The aims of this study were to design a specific Jiu-Jitsu anaerobic performance test (JJAPT) and investigate the relationship between blood lactate ([La]), heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during simulated Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu combat (SBJJC) and JJAPT. Nine male elite Brazilian medium heavy weight athletes performed a 10-minute SBJJC and JJAPT that required performance of a common BJJ technique for 5 consecutive bouts of 1-minute with 45-second rest between bouts. [La] was measured by a lactate analyzer, HR by an HR monitor, and RPE using Borg's scale, and the number of repetitions of butterfly lifts (NBL) was recorded. During JJAPT, NBL decreased in the fourth and fifth bouts (p ≤ 0.05) with increases in [La], HR, and RPE (p ≤ 0.05), indicating that the JJAPT measured anaerobic performance. [La] during SBJJC was not different than [La] at the third and fourth bouts, but was significantly different than the fifth bout (p ≤ 0.05). [La] showed strong correlation between SBJJC and JJAPT for the third (r = 0.80, p ≤ 0.05), fourth (r = 0.83, p ≤ 0.05), and fifth (r = 0.82, p ≤ 0.05) bouts, but not between the HR and RPE. The JJAPT with 4 bouts presented the best combination of stimulus and highest correlation with SBJJC, supporting its use to assess anaerobic performance of BJJ athletes. These data will aid coaches and athletes to better understand the demands of their sport and may help to monitor adaptation in sport-specific performance across periodized training plans.