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Kogure, GS, Silva, RC, Miranda-Furtado, CL, Ribeiro, VB, Pedroso, DCC, Melo, AS, Ferriani, RA, and Reis, RMd. Hyperandrogenism enhances muscle strength after progressive resistance training, independent of body composition, in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. J Strength Cond Res 32(9): 2651–2660, 2018—The effects of resistance exercise on muscle strength, body composition, and increase in cross-sectional area of skeletal muscle (hypertrophy) were evaluated in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This case-control study included 45 PCOS and 52 non-PCOS women, with age between 18–37 years and body mass index of 18–39.9 kg·m−2. Subjects performed a program of progressive resistance training (PRT), 3 times per week for 4 months. Biochemical characteristics were measured before and after PRT. Muscle strength evaluated by 1 maximum repetition test and body composition and hypertrophy indicator, evaluated by anthropometry, were measured at baseline, at 8 weeks, and at 16 weeks after PRT. Progressive resistance training produced an increase in maximum strength (bench press, p = 0.04; leg extension, p = 0.04) in the PCOS group; however, no changes were observed in body composition between groups. Concentration of testosterone decreased in both PCOS and non-PCOS groups (p < 0.01, both) after PRT, as well as glycemia (PCOS, p = 0.01; non-PCOS, p = 0.02) and body fat percentage (p < 0.01, both). An increase in hypertrophy indicators, lean body mass (LBM), and maximum strength on all exercises was observed in both PCOS and non-PCOS groups (p < 0.01). This training protocol promoted increases in muscle strength in PCOS women, and improved hyperandrogenism and body composition by decreasing body fat and increasing LBM and muscle strength in both PCOS and non-PCOS groups. Therefore, it is suggested that resistance exercise programs could promote health and fitness in women of reproductive age, especially functional capacity of strength those with PCOS.