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Whitehead, MT, Scheett, TP, McGuigan, MR, and Martin, AV. A comparison of the effects of short-term plyometric and resistance training on lower-body muscular performance. J Strength Cond Res 32(10): 2743–2749, 2018—The purpose of this study was to compare effects of short-term plyometric and resistance training on lower-body muscular performance. A convenience sample of 30 male subjects aged 21.3 ± 1.8 years (height, 177.3 ± 9.4 cm; mass, 80.0 ± 2.6 kg; body fat, 16.1 ± 1.2%) participated in this investigation. Participants were grouped, and they participated in progressive plyometric (PLT) or resistance training (SRT) twice per week for 8 consecutive weeks or a control (CNT) group that did not participate in any training. Performance tests were administered before and after the training period, and it included measures of high-speed muscular strength (standing long jump, vertical jump), low-speed muscular strength (1-repetition maximal back squat), running speed (20-m sprint), and running agility (505 agility test). Analysis of variance followed by post hoc analyses was performed to determine significant differences between the groups. Significance set at p ≤ 0.05 for all analyses. Significant improvements were observed in the PLT group for standing long jump, vertical jump, and 1-repetition maximal back squat compared with the CNT group and for vertical jump as compared with the SRT group. Significant improvements were observed in the SRT group 1-repetition maximal back squat compared with the CNT group. There were no differences observed between any of the groups for the 20-m sprint or the 505 agility test after the training. These data indicate that 8 weeks of progressive plyometric training results in improvements in parameters of high-speed and low-speed muscular strength with no appreciable change in speed or agility. Additionally, the improvement in low-speed muscular strength observed from 8 weeks of progressive plyometric training was comparable to the results observed from 8 weeks of progressive strength training.