An increased risk of autistic traits in Klinefelter syndrome (KS) has been reported. In addition, some studies have shown an increased incidence of gender dysphoria (GD) and paraphilia in autism spectrum disorder.Aim.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of (i) paraphilic fantasies and behaviors; and (ii) GD symptomatology in KS.Methods and Main Outcomes Measures.
A sample of 46 KS individuals and 43 healthy male controls (HC) were evaluated. Subjects were studied by means of several psychometric tests, such as Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Revised (RME) to measure autistic traits, Gender Identity/GD questionnaire (GIDYQ-AA), and Sexual Addiction Screening Test (SAST). In addition, body uneasiness psychopathological symptoms were assessed using Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (SCL-90-R). The presence and frequency of any paraphilic fantasy and behavior was assessed by means of a clinical interview based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition criteria. Finally, all individuals included were assessed by Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised to evaluate intelligence quotient (IQ). Data from a subsample of a previous published series of male to female GD individuals, with the battery of psychological measures useful to provide a psychopathological explanation of GD in KS population available, was also considered.Results.
When compared with HC, KS reported significantly lower total, verbal and performance IQ scores and higher SCL-90 obsession-compulsive symptoms (all P < 0.001). In line with previously reported findings, KS showed higher autistic traits according with both RME and AQ tests (P < 0.001). With respect to sexuality, KS showed a significant higher frequency of voyeuristic fantasies during masturbation (52.2% vs. 25.6%) and higher SAST scores (P = 0.012). A mediation role of obsessive symptoms on the relationship between Klinefelter and SAST was confirmed (unstandardized estimate b = 2.75, standard error = 0.43 P < 0.001). Finally, KS individuals showed significantly higher gender dysphoric symptoms than HC (P = 0.004), which were mediated by the presence of autistic traits (Sobel's test; P < 0.05).Conclusions.
KS is associated with hypersexuality, paraphilic behaviors, and GD, which were mediated by obsessive-compulsive and autistic traits. Alessandra D. Fisher, Giovanni Castellini, Helen Casale, Egidia Fanni, Elisa Bandini, Beatrice Campone, Naika Ferruccio, Elisa Maseroli, Valentina Boddi, Davide Dèttore, Alessandro Pizzocaro, Giancarlo Balercia, Alessandro Oppo, Valdo Ricca, and Mario Maggi. Hypersexuality, paraphilic behaviors, and gender dysphoria in individuals with Klinefelter's syndrome. J Sex Med 2015;12:2413–2424.