Complex Permittivity Spectra of Binary Pyridine–Amide Mixtures Using Time–Domain Reflectometry

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Abstract

Frequency spectra of the complex permittivity for pyridine–amide binary mixtures have been determined over the frequency range 10 MHz to 10 GHz, at 5, 15, 25, and 40°C, using the time–domain reflectometry method, for 11 compositions of each pyridine–amide system, e.g., formamide, N-methylformamide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. The relaxation in these systems can be described by a single relaxation time using the Debye model. The static dielectric constant, relaxation time, the corresponding excess dielectric properties, Kirkwood correlation factor, and molar activation energy of the mixtures have been determined. The excess permittivity is found to be positive in the amide-rich region and negative in the pyridine-rich region. The excess inverse relaxation time is negative, except in the pyridine-rich region. The static dielectric constants for the mixtures have been fitted with the modified Bruggeman model. The temperature-dependent relaxation times show the expected Arrhenius behavior.

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