In the past, most outcomes research has focused on defining the clinicopathological determinants of outcomes. More recently, it has become apparent that the molecular features of tumor (as well as the genetic makeup of the patient) significantly influence outcomes, including responsiveness to therapy and prognosis. In view of this, there is a need for more research on the molecular determinants of outcomes. Research biorepositories are important vehicles for this type of research and they could potentially accelerate this work. For biomarker research to affect patient care, it is critical to effectively link patient outcomes data with descriptions of the molecular features of tumors. Effective linkage of outcomes data with tissue banks will dramatically accelerate biomarker research.