Cancer genomics has increased our recognition of specific hereditary cancer mutations. Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome and Lynch syndrome are two such entities in which women carrying specific mutations may be at high risk for developing breast, ovarian, and/or endometrial cancers. Risk reducing surgery such as prophylactic mastectomy, oophorectomy, and/or hysterectomy may allow women to decrease these risks after completing childbearing. Background, indications, and consequences of these procedures are reviewed. J. Surg. Oncol. 2015 111:118–124. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.