Sarcopenia is the subclinical loss of skeletal muscle and strength and has been extensively studied in both the cancer and surgical literature. Specifically, sarcopenia has gained significant recognition as an important prognostic factor for both complications and survival in cancer patients. Herein, we review the current literature to date highlighting the specific impact of sarcopenia in patients undergoing oncologic procedures. J. Surg. Oncol. 2015; 112:503–509. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.