The introduction of robot-assisted surgery has helped practitioners implement laparoscopic approached to complex retroperitoneal and renal surgery. Urologists are now more frequently completing surgeries such as radical nephroureterectomy, radical nephrectomy with IVC thrombectomy, and retroperitoneal lymphadentectomy via a laparoscopic approach than ever before. This review discusses the rational of the above surgeries as well as a technical step-by-step description of our robotic nephroureterectomy surgical approach. J. Surg. Oncol. 2015;112:723–727. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.