Consideration of prophylactic mastectomy surgery following transplantation requires complex medical decision-making, and bias against elective surgery exists because of concern for post-operative complications. Prevention of cancer in transplant recipients is of utmost importance, given the risks of treating malignancy in an immunosuppressed patient. We present a patient case and review of the literature to support a thorough pre-transplantation evaluation of family history and consideration of prophylactic interventions to safeguard the quality of life of transplant recipients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:605–608. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.