Consulting with children in the development of self-efficacy and recall tools related to nutrition and physical activity

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This article chronicles our efforts to develop an instrument with and for children—complete with insights, multiple iterations, and missteps along the way. The instruments we developed assess children's self-efficacy and recall related to healthy eating and physical activity.

Design and Methods.

Five focus groups were held with 39 children to discuss the evolving instrument.


A nine-item self-efficacy instrument and a 10-item recall instrument were developed with Flesch–Kincaid grade levels of 1.8 and 4.0, respectively, which fifth graders can complete in less than 5 min.

Practice Implications.

When assessing children in clinical practice or research, we should use instruments that have been developed with children's feedback and are child-centered. Without that assurance, assessment results can be questionable.

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