The systematic position of the small neotropical genus Oryzolejeunea (three spp.) has long been controversial. Phylogenetic analyses of molecular data for the present study using DNA markers (trnL, psbA, and a nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer [nrITS] region) shows that the genus is nested in Lejeunea. The results not only reveal the phylogenetic position of Oryzolejeunea for the first time, but also challenge the taxonomic value of the proximal hyaline papilla as a key feature in Lejeunea. The present study shows the urgent need for a reassessment of the perimeters of the genus Lejeunea and its infrageneric classification. Three new combinations, namely Lejeunea saccatiloba, Lejeunea grolleana, and Lejeunea venezuelana, are proposed.