SURGICAL MANAGEMENT OF PROGRESSIVE PULMONARY VENOUS OBSTRUCTION AFTER REPAIR OF TOTAL ANOMALOUS PULMONARY VENOUS CONNECTION

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Abstract

Background:

The occurrence of a progressive pulmonary venous obstruction after the repair of the total anomalous pulmonary venous connection is a severe complication.

Objectives:

The objectives of this study were to retrospectively review the patients with this condition and to report our experience with a new surgical technique with a sutureless in situ pericardium repair.

Methods:

Of 178 patients who underwent correction of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, 16 patients (9%) experienced the development of a progressive pulmonary venous obstruction in a median interval of 4 months (5 weeks-12 years). Three patients had isolated anastomotic stenosis, 4 patients had isolated pulmonary venous ostial stenosis, and 9 patients had both. Pulmonary venous obstruction was bilateral in 7 patients. The surgical procedures used at reoperation included 8 patch enlargements, 5 ostial endarterectomies, 1 intraoperative stenting, and 7 sutureless in situ pericardium repairs.

Results:

There were 4 deaths after reoperation (4 of 15 patients; 27%). The only significant mortality risk factor was the bilateral location of the pulmonary venous obstruction (P = .045). In patients with isolated anastomotic stenosis or with only 1 pulmonary venous ostial stenosis (n = 5), there was no death, except the patient presenting with a single ventricle. In patients with 2 or more pulmonary venous ostial stenoses (n = 10), there were 3 deaths; 5 of the 7 survivors were successfully treated with the in situ pericardial technique, with normalized pulmonary artery pressure at a mean follow-up of 26 months.

Conclusion:

Progressive pulmonary venous stenosis after repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection remains a severe complication when bilateral. The sutureless in situ pericardial repair offers a satisfactory solution, particularly on the right side.

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