Cytostatic lung perfusion results in heterogeneous spatial regional blood flow and drug distribution: Evaluation of different cytostatic lung perfusion techniques in a porcine model

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Abstract

Objectives

Comparison of doxorubicin uptake, leakage and spatial regional blood flow, and drug distribution was made for antegrade, retrograde, combined antegrade and retrograde isolated lung perfusion, and pulmonary artery infusion by endovascular inflow occlusion (blood flow occlusion), as opposed to intravenous administration in a porcine model.

Methods

White pigs underwent single-pass lung perfusion with doxorubicin (320 μg/mL), labeled 99mTc-microspheres, and Indian ink. Visual assessment of the ink distribution and perfusion scintigraphy of the perfused lung was performed. 99mTc activity and doxorubicin levels were measured by gamma counting and high-performance liquid chromatography on 15 tissue samples from each perfused lung at predetermined localizations.

Results

Overall doxorubicin uptake in the perfused lung was significantly higher (P = .001) and the plasma concentration was significantly lower (P < .0001) after all isolated lung perfusion techniques, compared with intravenous administration, without differences between them. Pulmonary artery infusion (blood flow occlusion) showed an equally high doxorubicin uptake in the perfused lung but a higher systemic leakage than surgical isolated lung perfusion (P < .0001). The geometric coefficients of variation of the doxorubicin lung tissue levels were 175%, 279%, 226%, and 151% for antegrade, retrograde, combined antegrade and retrograde isolated lung perfusion, and pulmonary artery infusion by endovascular inflow occlusion (blood flow occlusion), respectively, compared with 51% for intravenous administration (P = .09). 99mTc activity measurements of the samples paralleled the doxorubicin level measurements, indicating a trend to a more heterogeneous spatial regional blood flow and drug distribution after isolated lung perfusion and blood flow occlusion compared with intravenous administration.

Conclusions

Cytostatic lung perfusion results in a high overall doxorubicin uptake, which is, however, heterogeneously distributed within the perfused lung.

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