Statin therapy in ambulatory populations is associated with a significant reduction in adverse cardiovascular events, including death and myocardial infarction. Much less is known about the beneficial effects of statins on acute perioperative cardiovascular events. The purpose of this study was to determine whether preoperative statin therapy is associated with a reduced risk of early cardiac death or nonfatal, in-hospital postoperative myocardial infarction after primary, elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass.Methods
The Multicenter Study of Perioperative Ischemia (McSPI) Epidemiology II Study was a prospective, longitudinal study of 5436 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery between November 1996 and June 2000 at 70 centers in 17 countries. The present study consisted of a pre-specified subset of these subjects divided into patients receiving (n = 1352) and not receiving (n = 1314) preoperative statin therapy. To control for potential bias related to use of statin therapy, the study estimated propensity scores by logistic regression to determine the predicted probability of inclusion in the “statin” group. Multivariate, stepwise logistic regression was then performed, controlling for patient demographics, medical history, operative characteristics, and propensity score to determine whether preoperative statin therapy was independently associated with a reduction in the risk of early (DOS-POD3) cardiac death and/or nonfatal, in-hospital postoperative myocardial infarction.Results
Preoperative statin therapy was independently associated with a significant reduction (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.25; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 0.07–0.87) in the risk of early cardiac death after primary, elective coronary bypass surgery (0.3% vs 1.4%; P < .03), but was not associated with a reduced risk of postoperative nonfatal, in-hospital myocardial infarction (7.9% vs 6.2%; P = not significant). Discontinuation of statin therapy after surgery was independently associated with a significant increase in late (POD4-discharge) all-cause mortality (adjusted OR 2.64; 95% CI 1.32–5.26) compared with continuation of statin therapy (2.64% vs 0.60%; P < .01). This was true even when controlling for the postoperative discontinuation of aspirin, β-blocker, or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor therapy. Discontinuation of statin therapy after surgery was also independently associated with a significant increase in late cardiac mortality (adjusted OR 2.95; 95% CI 1.31–6.66) compared with continuation of statin therapy (1.91% vs 0.45%; P < 0.01).Conclusions
Preoperative statin use is associated with reduced cardiac mortality after primary, elective coronary artery bypass grafting. Postoperative statin discontinuation is associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Although further randomized trials are needed to confirm these findings, these data suggest the importance of perioperative statin administration.