Operative delay for peripheral malperfusion syndrome in acute type A aortic dissection: A long-term analysis

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Abstract

Background

We previously reported an improvement in early mortality for patients presenting with acute type A dissection with malperfusion using a strategy of initial percutaneous intervention to restore end-organ perfusion and delayed operative repair after resolution of the malperfusion syndrome. This study evaluates the late outcomes with this approach.

Methods

A total of 196 patients were admitted with acute type A dissection (1997-2007). Seventy patients with ischemic end-organ dysfunction underwent percutaneous fenestration or branch vessel stenting. Operative therapy was planned after resolution of the reperfusion injury. Outcomes were compared for patients with (MP) and without (UC) dissection with ischemic end-organ dysfunction.

Results

The mean age of the patients was 57.1 years, and 173 patients underwent operative repair (n = 126 UC group; n = 47 MP group). The remaining 23 patients in the MP group died before repair from complications of malperfusion (11) or aortic rupture (12) while awaiting resolution of the malperfusion syndrome. Operative mortality was seen in 9.2% of all patients (9.5% in UC group vs 8.5% in MP group; P = 1.0). On analysis of the entire cohort (n = 196), the mean survival was higher for the uncomplicated group (95.9 months for UC group vs 53.7 months for MP group; P < .001). A subgroup analysis of patients who underwent operation (n = 173) revealed similar mean survival (95.9 months for UC group vs 80.5 months for MP group; P = .45).

Conclusion

A strategy of immediate reperfusion, stabilization, and planned operative repair for acute type A dissection with malperfusion still carries a significant risk for early and late mortality. However, those patients who survive the initial malperfusion and undergo repair have a similar operative and late survival when compared with those patients presenting with uncomplicated dissection.

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