Early and late outcomes of acute type A aortic dissection with intramural hematoma

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Abstract

Introduction

Controversy remains regarding management of acute type A dissection with intramural hematoma (IMH). Our purpose was to analyze our experience and report outcomes after repair of acute type A aortic dissection with IMH.

Methods

We analyzed all patients from a single center who underwent open repair for acute type A aortic dissection with IMH.

Results

Between 2000 and 2013, we performed 418 repairs for acute type A aortic dissection. These were divided into 2 groups of patients: 64 patients (15%) with type A IMH and 354 patients (85%) with typical dissection. Those with IMH were older (62.4 ± 13.9 years vs 56.7 ± 14.7 years; P < .0046) and presented with reduced renal function (ie, glomerular filtration rate) (P < .0341), less frequently with distal malperfusion, and less frequently with rupture (P < .0116). With IMH, the time from presentation to repair was, by strategy, longer (median, 67 vs 6 hours; P < .0001), but no mortality occurred within 3 days of presentation. Mortality with IMH did not differ from typical dissection: 7 out of 64 patients (10.9%) versus 52 out of 354 patients (14.7%; P = .4276). A lower incidence of postoperative dialysis in the IMH group approached significance: 6 out of 63 patients (9.5%) versus 64 out of 347 patients (18.4%; P = .0820). When adjusted for age and renal function, late survival was improved with IMH (P < .0343).

Conclusions

Repair of acute type A aortic dissection with IMH is associated with significant early morbidity and mortality, differing minimally from typical aortic dissection. Although expectant repair within 3 days may be applied, the purposeful delay imparted little advantage. Improved late outcomes may be seen with IMH, but continued long-term surveillance is required for verification.

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