Improved outcomes with the comprehensive stage 2 procedure after an initial hybrid stage 1

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Abstract

Objective:

To report our improving institutional experience with the hybrid alternative surgical strategy for the management of hypoplastic left heart syndrome, in which hybrid stage 1 is followed by a comprehensive stage 2 procedure (removal of patent ductus arteriosus stent and pulmonary artery [PA] bands, aorta and PA reconstruction, Damus–Kaye–Stansel, atrial septectomy, Glenn).

Methods:

In this Institutional Review Board–approved retrospective review of all patients undergoing a comprehensive stage 2 procedure between January 2002 and December 2014, data were compared between the pre-protocol group (n = 64; January 2002 to March 2010) and the post-protocol group (n = 55; March 2010 to December 2014). These 2 groups flank the implementation of a perioperative management protocol to prevent PA thrombosis.

Results:

Pre-protocol mortality was 19% (12 of 64), with the most common mode of death involving PA thrombosis in at least 7 patients, with an urgent indication for surgery and age as contributing factors. Care modifications instituted in March 2010 included avoidance of procedures on an emergent basis or in patients aged <3 months, use of a systemic PA shunt in cases of too-small superior vena cava and/or PA, completion angiogram with a low threshold for intraoperative stenting, and postoperative anticoagulation therapy for 6 weeks. There was a significant decrease in mortality (2 of 55; 4%; P = .01), PA thrombosis (0 of 55; 0%; P = .01), and use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (0/55 [0%] compared with 7 of 64 [11%]; P = .01) after protocol implementation.

Conclusions:

Despite the technical challenges of the comprehensive stage 2 procedure, excellent outcomes are attainable. Experience coupled with an internal quality review drove the implementation of a successful perioperative management protocol.

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