Long-term results after surgical treatment of paravalvular leak in the aortic and mitral position

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Abstract

Objectives

The aim of this study was to determine immediate results and long-term outcomes after surgical management of paravalvular leak (PVL).

Methods

Between 1995 and 2012, a total of 190 patients underwent primary surgical repair (n = 142) or valve replacement (n = 48) for a PVL at our institution. The PVL was mild in 6 (3%) patients, moderate in 85 (45%), moderate to severe in 84 (44%), and severe in 15 (8%). Among these, 120 (63%) had PVL in the mitral position, 63 (33%) had PVL in the aortic position, and 7 (4%) had PVL in both valves. Mean follow-up was 5.3 ± 4.6 years.

Results

Mean age at surgery was 63 ± 12 years (64% men). Operative mortality occurred in 13 (7%) patients (10 [8%] in mitral; 2 [3%] in aortic; and 1 [14%] in double valve procedures). Survival at 1, 5, and 10 years was 85% ± 3%, 73% ± 4%, and 56% ± 5%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of PVL recurrence was 3% ± 1%, 14% ± 3%, and 32% ± 6%, at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The number of previous surgeries was a predictor of survival and PVL recurrence. Freedom from New York Heart Association class ≥III was 96% ± 2%, 82% ± 4%, and 58% ± 6%, at 1, 5, and 10 years, respectively. The freedom from rehospitalization for heart failure was 92% ± 2%, 83% ± 4%, and 67% ± 6%, at 1, 5, and 10 years.

Conclusions

Surgical treatment of PVL resulted in acceptable outcomes. Nevertheless, the continued risk of PVL recurrence is higher in patients who have had multiple previous surgeries. More studies are needed to compare these results with the transcatheter PVL reduction technique.

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