A contemporary analysis of pulmonary hypertension in patients undergoing mitral valve surgery: Is this a risk factor?

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Abstract

Objective

Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) has been considered a risk factor for mortality in cardiac surgery. Among mitral valve surgery (MVS) patients, we sought to determine if severe PHT increases mortality risk and if patients who undergo concomitant tricuspid valve surgery (TVS) incur additional risk.

Methods

Preoperative PHT was assessed in 1571 patients undergoing MVS, from 2004 to 2013. Patients were stratified into PHT groups as follows (mm Hg): none (<35); moderate (35-49); severe (50-79); and extreme (≥80). Propensity-score matching resulted in a total of 430 patients, by PHT groups, and 384 patients, by TVS groups.

Results

Patients with severe PHT had higher mortality, both 30-day (4% PHT vs 1% no PHT, P < .02) and late (defined as survival at 5 years): 75.5% severe versus 91.9% no PHT (P < .001). In propensity-score–matched groups, severe PHT was not a risk factor for 30-day (3% each, P = 1.0) or late mortality (86.2% severe vs 87.1% no PHT; P = .87). TVS did not increase 30-day (4.7% TVS vs 4.2% no TVS, P = .8) or late mortality (78.7% TVS vs 75.3% no TVS, P = .90). Late survival was lower in extreme PHT (75.4% vs no PHT 91.5%, P = .007), and a trend was found in 30-day mortality (11% extreme vs 3% no PHT, P = .16).

Conclusions

Mortality in MVS is unaffected by severe PHT or the addition of TVS, yet extreme PHT remains a risk factor. Severe PHT (50-79 mm Hg) should not preclude surgery; concomitant TVS does not increase mortality.

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