Endovascular repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms using fenestrated and branched endografts

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Abstract

Purpose:

The study purpose was to review the outcomes of patients treated for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms using endovascular repair with fenestrated and branched stent-grafts in a single center.

Methods:

We reviewed the clinical data of the first 185 consecutive patients (134 male; mean age, 75 ± 7 years) treated for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms using fenestrated and branched stent-grafts. Graft design evolved from physician-modified endografts (2007-2013) to off-the-shelf or patient-specific manufactured devices in patients enrolled in a prospective physician-sponsored investigational device exemption protocol (NCT 1937949 and 2089607). Outcomes were reported for extent IV and extent I to III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms, including 30-day mortality, major adverse events, patient survival, primary target vessel patency, and reintervention.

Results:

A total of 112 patients (60%) were treated for extent IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms, and 73 patients (40%) were treated for extent I to III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. Demographics and cardiovascular risk factors were similar in both groups. A total of 687 renal-mesenteric arteries (3.7 vessels/patient) were targeted by 540 fenestrations and 147 directional branches. Technical success was 94%. Thirty-day mortality was 4.3%, including a mortality of 1.8% for extent IV and 8.2% for extent I to III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (P = .03). Mortality decreased in the second half of clinical experience from 7.5% to 1.2%, including a decrease of 3.3% to 0% for extent IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (P = .12) and 15.6% to 2.4% for extent I to III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (P = .04). Early major adverse events occurred in 36 patients (32%) with extent IV thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms and 26 patients (36%) with extent I to III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms, including spinal cord injury in 2 patients (1.8%) and 4 patients (3.2%), respectively. Mean follow-up was 21 ± 20 months. At 5 years, patient survival (56% and 59%, P = .37) and freedom from any reintervention (50% and 53%, P = .26) were similar in those with extent IV and extent I to III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. Primary patency was 93% at 5 years.

Conclusions:

Endovascular repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms can be performed with high technical success and low mortality and morbidity. However, the need for secondary reinterventions and continued graft surveillance represents major limitations compared with results of conventional open surgical repair. Long-term follow-up is needed before the widespread use of these techniques in younger or lower-risk patients.

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