Clinical outcomes and rates of aortic growth and reoperation after 1-stage repair of extensive chronic thoracic aortic dissection

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Abstract

Objective:

The study objective was to analyze clinical outcomes, distal segmental aortic growth, and aortic reoperation rates after 1-stage open repair of extensive chronic thoracic aortic dissection via bilateral anterior thoracotomy.

Methods:

Eighty patients underwent extensive 1-stage repair of chronic aortic dissection that included the ascending aorta, the entire aortic arch, and the varying lengths of the descending thoracic aorta. One half or more of the descending thoracic aorta was replaced in 62 (78%) of the 80 patients. Hospital mortality was 2.5% (2 patients). Stroke occurred in 1 patient (1.2%), spinal cord ischemic injury occurred in 1 patient (1.2%), and renal failure requiring long-term dialysis occurred in 2 patients (2.5%). Sixty-five of the 78 hospital survivors (83%) had serial imaging studies suitable for calculation of growth rates of the remaining dissected thoracic and abdominal aorta. Forty-seven patients were followed for more than 5 years, and 21 patients were followed for more than 10 years.

Results:

The mean annual growth rate for the distal contiguous aorta was 1.7 mm/y. Forty aortas increased in diameter, 16 aortas remained unchanged, and 9 aortas decreased in diameter. Five patients required reoperation on the contiguous thoracic or abdominal aorta 8, 27, 34, 51, and 174 months postoperatively for progressive enlargement. Actuarial freedom from reoperation on the contiguous aorta at 5 and 10 years was 95.4% and 93%, respectively. Actuarial freedom from any aortic reoperation at 5 and 10 years was 89.2% and 84.4%, respectively. Actuarial survival for the entire cohort at 5 and 10 years was 76.4% and 52.6%, respectively, and survival free of any aortic operation was 68.6% and 43.9%, respectively. No patient whose cause of death was known died of aortic rupture.

Conclusions:

Our extended experience with the 1-stage open procedure confirms its safety and durability for treatment of chronic aortic dissection with enlargement confined to the thoracic aorta. The procedure is associated with low operative risk and a low incidence of reoperation on the contiguous aorta. It represents a suitable alternative to the 2-stage, frozen elephant trunk, and hybrid procedures that are also used to treat this condition.

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