Long-term outcome of preadolescents, adolescents, and adult patients undergoing total cavopulmonary connection

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Abstract

Objectives

Patients with a single ventricle infrequently undergo total cavopulmonary connection as preadolescents, adolescents, or adults. The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of this cohort and to analyze the factors influencing outcomes.

Methods

Between 1994 and 2015, 50 of 460 patients underwent total cavopulmonary connection as preadolescents, adolescents, or adults (group A). The patients’ characteristics and operative results were compared with those of the remaining 410 patients aged less than 9 years who underwent total cavopulmonary connection (group B). Post–total cavopulmonary connection echocardiogram reports (n = 4862) were used to evaluate longitudinal ventricular function, and ejection fraction was characterized using nonlinear mixed-effects models and compared between groups.

Results

The median follow-up time was 10.3 (2.8-15.5) years. The differences between groups in 30-day mortality (P = .20), intensive care unit stay (P = .20), and incidence of prolonged effusion (P = .08) were not significant. The estimated survival at 15 years was lower in group A (86.5%) than in group B (94.0%, P = .04) patients. Long-term systemic ventricular ejection fraction, analyzed with linear mixed-effect models, was significantly reduced in group A than in group B patients (P < .001). At a median postoperative period of 8.4 (7.1-10.5) years, the peak oxygen uptake as measured by exercise capacity testing was lower in group A than in group B patients, respectively (22.3 ± 6.5 [n = 25] vs 30.6 ± 8.1 [n = 100] mL/kg/min, P < .001).

Conclusions

The total cavopulmonary connection procedure was performed in preadolescent, adolescent, and adult patients with no significant difference in 30-day or hospital mortality compared with those in young children. However, long-term survival and ventricular performance were reduced in this older cohort.

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