Novel, high incidence exercise-induced muscle bleeding model in hemophilia B mice: rationale, development and prophylactic intervention

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Muscle hematomas are the second most common complication of hemophilia and insufficient treatment may result in serious and even life-threatening complications. Hemophilic dogs and rats do experience spontaneous muscle bleeding, but currently, no experimental animal model is available specifically investigating spontaneous muscle bleeds in a hemophilic setting.


The objective of this study was to develop a model of spontaneous muscle bleeds in hemophilia B mice. We hypothesized that treadmill exercise would induce muscle bleeds in hemophilia B mice but not in normal non-hemophilic mice and that treatment with recombinant factor IX (rFIX) before treadmill exercise could prevent the occurrence of pathology.


A total of 203 mice (123 F9-KO and 80 C57BL/6NTac) were included in three separate studies: (i) the model implementation study investigating the bleeding pattern in hemophilia B mice after treadmill exercise; (ii) a study evaluating the pharmacokinetics of recombinant FIX (rFIX) in hemophilia B mice and based on these data; (iii) the treatment study, which tested therapeutic intervention with rFIX. At termination of the treadmill studies the presence of bleeds was evaluated.


Treadmill exercise resulted in a high incidence of muscle bleeds in F9-KO mice but not in C57BL/6NTac mice. Treating hemophilia B mice with rFIX before treadmill exercise prevented muscle bleeds.


A novel model of muscle bleeds in hemophilia B mice, responsive to rFIX, has been developed.

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